The 20 Most Important Tools Ever is a very interesting read. There are some associated articles talking about what isn’t included, but as a guide, the only post-industrial invention that makes the list is the lathe.
One of the intriguing things is how the simplest tools often turn into other tools, in incredibly different areas. There’s also an amusing aside about the other greatest tool ever, Duct tape.
View the slide show of numbers 20-4.